So, basically Internet is a connection of millions of devices over wide area .Its just much big version of the local network to which your connected to at home (Like through wifi of your router).
So, to give you brief, the first thing that happens when you type a url of a particular website in the header of a browser , DNS acts into play which returns IP of Web Server of that particular website and thus request the data for that website from the server of the hosted website.
So, to explain a part above , IP address is the identity of your machine (PC,laptop, or mobile) which is used for identification of your machine on the web just like address of your home.
It has different numbers seperated with dots representing the particular location, region you are residing with your machine. IP address is provided by your ISP (Internet Service Provider) which is different for each devices connected to this big internet. Currently, IPv6 provides unique addresses for each device available, thus having good capacity. IP address is also available for a website to recognise it with its domain name, DNS (Domain Name System) helps in doing this whenever you types a particular url.
The information on web is circulated in the form of packets, which is distributed through different paths in separate amounts to reach the required destination , and the paths of packets is controlled by routers on web.
For ex, if you want to view an image on facebook , then for it data is sent in packets from server to you containing different parts of image, their might be possibility that 50% of packets reach you , and therefore you might see 50% of the loaded image.
Thats how the Internet Works!